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Constitution of the State of Kansas
Constitution of the State of Kansas 

WHEREAS, The government of the United States is the proprietor of a large portion 
of the lands included in the limits of the state of Kansas as defined by this 
constitution; and, 
WHEREAS, The state of Kansas will possess the right to tax said lands for purposes 
of government, and for other purposes; Now, therefore, 
Be it ordained by the people of Kansas: 
That the right of the state of Kansas to tax such lands is relinquished forever, and the 
state of Kansas will not interfere with the title of the United States to such lands, nor 
with any regulation of congress in relation thereto, nor tax nonresidents higher than 
residents: Provided always, That the following conditions be agreed to by congress: 
§ 1: School sections. Sections numbered sixteen and thirty-six in each township in 
the state, including Indian reservations and trust lands, shall be granted to the state 
for the exclusive use of common schools; and when either of said sections, or any 
part thereof, has been disposed of, other lands of equal value, as nearly contiguous 
thereto as possible, shall be substituted therefore. 
§ 2: University lands. That seventy-two sections of land shall be granted to the state for the erection and 
maintenance of a state university. 
§ 3: Lands for public buildings. That thirty-six sections shall be granted to the state for the erection of 
public buildings. 
§ 4: Lands for benevolent institutions. That seventy-two sections shall be granted 
to the state for the erection and maintenance of charitable and benevolent institutions. 
§ 5: Salt springs and mines. That all salt springs, not exceeding twelve in number, 
with six sections of land adjacent to each, together with all mines, with the lands 
necessary for the full use, shall be granted to the state for works of public improvement. 
§ 6: Proceeds to schools. That five percentum of the proceeds of the public lands in 
Kansas, disposed of after the admission of the state into the union, shall be paid to 
the state for a fund, the income of which shall be used for the support of common schools. 
§ 7: School lands. That the five hundred thousand acres of land to which the state is 
entitled under the act of congress entitled "An act to appropriate the proceeds of the 
sales of public lands and grant pre-emption rights," approved September 4th, 1841, 
shall be granted to the state for the support of common schools. 
§ 8: Selection of lands. That the lands hereinbefore mentioned shall be selected in 
such manner as may be prescribed by law; such selections to be subject to the approval of the commissioner of the general land office of the United States. 
We, the people of Kansas, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious 
privileges, in order to insure the full enjoyment of our rights as American citizens, do 
ordain and establish this constitution of the state of Kansas, with the following 
boundaries, to wit: Beginning at a point on the western boundary of the state of 
Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence 
running west on said parallel to the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude west from 
Washington; thence north on said meridian to the fortieth parallel of north latitude; 
thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the state of Missouri; thence 
south with the western boundary of said state to the place of beginning. 
 State of Kansas 
 Kansas Bill of Rights 
§ 1. Equal rights. All men are possessed of equal and inalienable natural rights, 
among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 
§ 2. Political power; privileges. All political power is inherent in the people, and all 
free governments are founded on their authority, and are instituted for their equal 
protection and benefit. No special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted by 
the legislature, which may not be altered, revoked or repealed by the same body; and 
this power shall be exercised by no other tribunal or agency. 
§ 3. Right of peaceable assembly; petition. The people have the right to assemble, 
in a peaceable manner, to consult for their common good, to instruct their 
representatives, and to petition the government, or any department thereof, for the 
redress of grievances. 
§ 4. Individual right to bear arms; armies. A person has the right to keep 
and bear arms for the defense of self, family, home and state, for lawful 
hunting and recreational use, and for any other lawful purpose ; but 
standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and shall not 
be tolerated, and the military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.'' 
§ 5. Trial by jury. The right of trial by jury shall be inviolate. 
§ 6. Slavery prohibited. There shall be no slavery in this state; and no involuntary 
servitude, except for the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly 
§ 7. Religious liberty. The right to worship God according to the dictates of 
conscience shall never be infringed; nor shall any person be compelled to attend or 
support any form of worship; nor shall any control of or interference with the rights 
of conscience be permitted, nor any preference be given by law to any religious 
establishment or mode of worship. No religious test or property qualification shall be 
required for any office of public trust, nor for any vote at any elections, nor shall any person be incompetent to testify on account of religious belief. 
§ 8. Habeas corpus. The right to the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless the public safety requires it in case of invasion or rebellion. 
§ 9. Bail. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties except for capital 
offenses, where proof is evident or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be 
required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted. 
§ 10. Trial; defense of accused. In all prosecutions, the accused shall be allowed to 
appear and defend in person, or by counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the 
accusation against him; to meet the witness face to face, and to have compulsory 
process to compel the attendance of the witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public 
trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to 
have been committed. No person shall be a witness against himself, or be twice put in 
jeopardy for the same offense. 
§ 11. Liberty of press and speech; libel. The liberty of the press shall be inviolate; 
and all persons may freely speak, write or publish their sentiments on all subjects, 
being responsible for the abuse of such rights; and in all civil or criminal actions for 
libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall appear that the 
alleged libelous matter was published for justifiable ends, the accused party shall be 
§ 12. No forfeiture of estate for crimes. No conviction within the state shall work a forfeiture of estate. 
§ 13. Treason. Treason shall consist only in levying war against the state, adhering to 
its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason 
unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the overt act, or confession in open court. 
§ 14. Soldiers' quarters. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent 
of the occupant, nor in time of war, except as prescribed by law. 
§ 15. Search and seizure. The right of the people to be secure in their persons and 
property against unreasonable searches and seizures shall be inviolate; and no warrant 
shall issue but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly 
describing the place to be searched and the persons or property to be seized. 
§ 16. Imprisonment for debt. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, except in 
cases of fraud. 
§ 17. Property rights of citizens and aliens. No distinction shall ever be made 
between citizens of the state of Kansas and the citizens of other states and territories 
of the United States in reference to the purchase, enjoyment or descent of property. 
The rights of aliens in reference to the purchase, enjoyment or descent of property 
may be regulated by law. 
§ 18. Justice without delay. All persons, for injuries suffered in person, reputation 
or property, shall have remedy by due course of law, and justice administered without 
 § 19. Emoluments or privileges prohibited. No hereditary emoluments, honors, or privileges shall ever 
be granted or conferred by the state. 
§ 20. Powers retained by people. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed 
to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers not herein delegated 
remain with the people. 
Constitution of the State of Kansas 
Article 1.--EXECUTIVE 
§ 1: Executive officers; selection; terms. The constitutional officers of the executive department 
shall be the governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, and attorney general, who shall have 
such qualifications as are provided by law. Such officers shall be chosen by the electors of this state 
at the time of voting for members of the legislature in the year 1974 and every four years thereafter, 
and such officers elected in 1974 and thereafter shall have terms of four years which shall begin on 
the second Monday of January next after their election, and until their successors are elected and 
qualified. In the year 1974 and thereafter, at all elections of governor and lieutenant governor the 
candidates for such offices shall be nominated and elected jointly in such manner as is prescribed by 
law so that a single vote shall be cast for a candidate for governor and a candidate for lieutenant 
governor running together, and if such candidates are nominated by petition or convention each 
petition signature and each convention vote shall be made for a candidate for governor and a 
candidate for lieutenant governor running together. No person may be elected to more than two 
successive terms as governor nor to more than two successive terms as lieutenant governor. 
§ 3: Executive power of governor. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a 
governor, who shall be responsible for the enforcement of the laws of this state. 
§ 4: Reports to governor. The governor may require information in writing from the officers of the 
executive department, upon any subject relating to their respective duties. The officers of the 
executive department, and of all public state institutions, shall, at least ten days preceding each 
regular session of the legislature, severally report to the governor, who shall transmit such reports to 
the legislature. 
§ 5: Governor's duties for legislature; messages; special sessions; adjournment. The governor 
may, on extraordinary occasions, call the legislature into special session by proclamation; and shall 
call the legislature into special session, upon petition signed by at least two-thirds of the members 
elected to each house. At every session of the legislature the governor shall communicate in writing 
information in reference to the condition of the state, and recommend such measures as he deems 
expedient. In case of disagreement between the two houses in respect of the time of adjournment, the 
governor may adjourn the legislature to such time as he deems proper, not beyond its next regular 
§ 6: Reorganization of state agencies of executive branch. 
(a) For the purpose of transferring, abolishing, consolidating or coordinating the whole or any 
part of any state agency, or the functions thereof, within the executive branch of state government, when the governor considers the same necessary for efficient administration, he 
may issue one or more executive reorganization orders, each bearing an identifying number, 
and transmit the same to the legislature within the first thirty calendar days of any regular 
session. Agencies and functions of the legislative and judicial branches, and constitutionally 
delegated functions of state officers and state boards shall be exempt from executive 
reorganization orders. 
(b) The governor shall transmit each executive reorganization order to both houses of the 
legislature on the same day, and each such order shall be accompanied by a governor's 
message which shall specify with respect to each abolition of a function included in the order 
the statutory authority for the exercise of the function. Every executive reorganization order 
shall provide for the transfer or other disposition of the records, property and personnel 
affected by the order. Every executive reorganization order shall provide for all necessary 
transfers of unexpended balances of appropriations of agencies affected by such order, and 
such changes in responsibility for and handling of special funds as may be necessary to 
accomplish the purpose of such order. Transferred balances of appropriations may be used 
only for the purposes for which the appropriation was originally made. 
© Each executive reorganization order transmitted to the legislature as provided in this 
section shall take effect and have the force of general law on the July 1 following its 
transmittal to the legislature, unless within sixty calendar days and before the adjournment of 
the legislative session either the senate or the house of representatives adopts by a majority 
vote of the members elected thereto a resolution disapproving such executive reorganization 
order. Under the provisions of an executive reorganization order a portion of the order may be 
effective at a time later than the date on which the order is otherwise effective. 
(d) An executive reorganization order which is effective shall be published as and with the 
acts of the legislature and the statutes of the state. Any executive reorganization order which 
is or is to become effective may be amended or repealed as statutes of the state are amended 
or repealed. 
§ 7: Pardons. The pardoning power shall be vested in the governor, under regulations and 
restrictions prescribed by law. 
§ 9: State seal and commissions. There shall be a seal of the state, which shall be kept by the 
governor, and used by him officially, and which shall be the great seal of Kansas. All commissions 
shall be issued in the name of the state of Kansas; and shall be signed by the governor, 
countersigned by the secretary of state, and sealed with the great seal. 
§ 11: Vacancies in executive offices. When the office of governor is vacant, the lieutenant governor 
shall become governor. In the event of the disability of the governor, the lieutenant governor shall 
assume the powers and duties of governor until the disability is removed. The legislature shall 
provide by law for the succession to the office of governor should the offices of governor and 
lieutenant governor be vacant, and for the assumption of the powers and duties of governor during 
the disability of the governor, should the office of lieutenant governor be vacant or the lieutenant 
governor be disabled. When the office of secretary of state or attorney general is vacant, the 
governor shall fill the vacancy by appointment for the remainder of the term. If the secretary of state 
or attorney general is disabled, the governor shall name a person to assume the powers and duties of 
the office until the disability is removed. The procedure for determining disability and the removal 
thereof shall be provided by law. 
 § 12: Lieutenant governor. The lieutenant governor shall assist the governor and have such other 
powers and duties as are prescribed by law. 
§ 13: Compensation of officers. The officers mentioned in this article shall at stated times receive 
for their services a such compensation as is established by law, which shall not be diminished during 
their terms of office, unless by general law applicable to all salaried officers of the state. Any person 
exercising the powers and duties of an office mentioned in this article shall receive the compensation 
established by law for that office.  
Article 2.--LEGISLATIVE 
§ 1: Legislative power. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in a house of 
representatives and senate. 
§ 2: Senators and representatives. The number of representatives and senators shall be regulated 
by law, but shall not exceed one hundred twenty-five representatives and forty senators. 
Representatives and senators shall be elected from single-member districts prescribed by law. 
Representatives shall be elected for two year terms. Senators shall be elected for four year terms. 
The terms of representatives and senators shall commence on the second Monday of January of the 
year following election. 
§ 3: Compensation of members of legislature. The members of the legislature shall receive such 
compensation as may be provided by law or such compensation as is determined according to law. 
§ 4: Qualifications of members. During the time that any person is a candidate for nomination or 
election to the legislature and during the term of each legislator, such candidate or legislator shall be 
and remain a qualified elector who resides in his or her district. 
§ 5: Eligibility and disqualification of members. No member of congress and no civil officer or 
employee of the United States or of any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof shall be 
eligible to be a member of the legislature. Any member of the legislature who accepts any 
appointment or election contrary to the foregoing shall be disqualified as a member of the 
§ 8: Organization and sessions. The legislature shall meet in regular session annually commencing 
on the second Monday in January, and all sessions shall be held at the state capital. The duration of 
regular sessions held in even-numbered years shall not exceed ninety calendar days. Such sessions 
may be extended beyond ninety calendar days by an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members 
elected to each house. Bills and concurrent resolutions under consideration by the legislature upon 
adjournment of a regular session held in an odd-numbered year may be considered at the next 
succeeding regular session held in an even-numbered year, as if there had been no such 
The legislature shall be organized concurrently with the terms of representatives except that the 
senate shall remain organized during the terms of senators. The president of the senate shall preside 
over the senate, and the speaker of the house of representatives shall preside over the house of 
representatives. A majority of the members then elected (or appointed) and qualified of the house of 
representatives or the senate shall constitute a quorum of that house. Neither house, without the 
consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than two days, Sundays excepted. Each house shall elect 
its presiding officer and determine the rules of its proceedings, except that the two houses may adopt 
joint rules on certain matters and provide for the manner of change thereof. Each house shall provide 
for the expulsion or censure of members in appropriate cases. Each house shall be the judge of 
elections, returns and qualifications of its own members. 
§ 9: Vacancies in legislature. All vacancies occurring in either house shall be filled as provided by 
§ 10: Journals. Each house shall publish a journal of its proceedings. The affirmative and negative 
votes upon the final passage of every bill and every concurrent resolution for amendment of this 
constitution or ratification of an amendment to the Constitution of the United States shall be entered 
in the journal. Any member of either house may make written protest against any act or resolution, 
and the same shall be entered in the journal without delay or alteration. 
§ 12: Origination by either house. Bills and concurrent resolutions may originate in either house, 
but may be amended or rejected by the other. 
§ 13: Majority for passage of bills. A majority of the members then elected (or appointed) and 
qualified of each house, voting in the affirmative, shall be necessary to pass any bill. Two-thirds 
(2/3) of the members then elected (or appointed) and qualified in each house, voting in the 
affirmative, shall be necessary to ratify any amendment to the Constitution of the United States or to 
make any application for congress to call a convention for proposing amendments to the 
Constitution of the United States. 
§ 14: Approval of bills; vetoes. 
(a) Within ten days after passage, every bill shall be signed by the presiding officers and 
presented to the governor. If the governor approves a bill, he shall sign it. If the governor does 
not approve a bill, the governor shall veto it by returning the bill, with a veto message of the 
objections, to the house of origin of the bill. Whenever a veto message is so received, the 
message shall be entered in the journal and in not more than thirty calendar days (excluding 
the day received), the house of origin shall reconsider the bill. If two-thirds of the members 
then elected (or appointed) and qualified shall vote to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the 
veto message, to the other house, which shall in not more than thirty calendar days (excluding 
the day received) also reconsider the bill, and if approved by two-thirds of the members then 
elected (or appointed) and qualified, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the governor's 
If any bill shall not be returned within ten calendar days (excluding the day presented) after it 
shall have been presented to the governor, it shall become a law in like manner as if it had 
been signed by the governor. 
(b) If any bill presented to the governor contains several items of appropriation of money, one 
or more of such items may be disapproved by the governor while the other portion of the bill 
is approved by the governor. In case the governor does so disapprove, a veto message of the 
governor stating the item or items disapproved, and the reasons therefor, shall be appended to 
the bill at the time it is signed, and the bill shall be returned with the veto message to the 
house of origin of the bill. Whenever a veto message is so received, the message shall be 
entered in the journal and, in not more than thirty calendar days, the house of origin shall 
reconsider the items of the bill which have been disapproved. If two-thirds of the members 
then elected (or appointed) and qualified shall vote to approve any item disapproved by the 
governor, the bill, with the veto message, shall be sent to the other house, which shall in not 
more than thirty calendar days also reconsider each such item so approved by the house of 
origin, and if approved by two-thirds of all the members then elected (or appointed) and 
qualified, any such item shall take effect and become a part of the bill. 
 § 15: Requirements before bill passed. No bill shall be passed on the day that it is introduced, 
unless in case of emergency declared by two-thirds of the members present in the house where a bill 
is pending. 
§ 16: Subject and title of bills; amendment or revival of statutes. No bill shall contain more than 
one subject, except appropriation bills and bills for revision or codification of statutes. The subject 
of each bill shall be expressed in its title. No law shall be revived or amended, unless the new act 
contain the entire act revived or the section or sections amended, and the section or sections so 
amended shall be repealed. The provisions of this section shall be liberally construed to effectuate 
the acts of the legislature. 
§ 17: Uniform operation of laws of a general nature. All laws of a general nature shall have a 
uniform operation throughout the state: Provided, The legislature may designate areas in counties 
that have become urban in character as "urban areas" and enact special laws giving to any one or 
more of such counties or urban areas such powers of local government and consolidation of local 
government as the legislature may deem proper. 
§ 18: Election or appointment of officers; filling vacancies. The legislature may provide for the 
election or appointment of all officers and the filling of all vacancies not otherwise provided for in 
this constitution. 
§ 19: Publication of acts. No act shall take effect until the enacting bill is published as provided by 
§ 20: Enacting clause of bills; laws enacted only by bill. The enacting clause of all bills shall be 
"Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas:". No law shall be enacted except by bill. 
§ 21: Delegation of powers of local legislation and administration. The legislature may confer 
powers of local legislation and administration upon political subdivisions. 
§ 22: Legislative immunity. For any speech, written document or debate in either house, the 
members shall not be questioned elsewhere. No member of the legislature shall be subject to arrest -- 
except for treason, felony or breach of the peace -- in going to, or returning from, the place of 
meeting, or during the continuance of the session; neither shall he be subject to the service of any 
civil process during the session, nor for fifteen days previous to its commencement. 
§ 24: Appropriations. No money shall be drawn from the treasury except in pursuance of a specific 
appropriation made by law. 
§ 27: Impeachment. The house of representatives shall have the sole power to impeach. All 
impeachments shall be tried by the senate; and when sitting for that purpose, the senators shall take 
an oath to do justice according to the law and the evidence. No person shall be convicted without the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the senators then elected (or appointed) and qualified. 
§ 28: Officers impeachable; grounds; punishment. The governor and all other officers under this 
constitution, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, 
or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 
 § 30: Delegation of powers to interstate bodies. The legislature may confer legislative powers 
upon interstate bodies, comprised of officers of this state or its political subdivisions acting in 
conjunction with officers of other jurisdictions, relating to the functions thereof. Any such 
delegation, and any agreement made thereunder shall be subject to limitation, change or termination 
by the legislature, unless contained in a compact approved by the congress. 
Article 3.--JUDICIAL 
§ 1: Judicial power; seals; rules. The judicial power of this state shall be vested exclusively in one 
court of justice, which shall be divided into one supreme court, district courts, and such other courts 
as are provided by law; and all courts of record shall have a seal. The supreme court shall have 
general administrative authority over all courts in this state. 
§ 2: Supreme court. The supreme court shall consist of not less than seven justices who shall be 
selected as provided by this article. All cases shall be heard with not fewer than four justices sitting 
and the concurrence of a majority of the justices sitting and of not fewer than four justices shall be 
necessary for a decision. The term of office of the justices shall be six years except as hereinafter 
provided. The justice who is senior in continuous term of service shall be chief justice, and in case 
two or more have continuously served during the same period the senior in age of these shall be 
chief justice. A justice may decline or resign from the office of chief justice without resigning from 
the court. Upon such declination or resignation, the justice who is next senior in continuous term of 
service shall become chief justice. During incapacity of a chief justice, the duties, powers and 
emoluments of the office shall devolve upon the justice who is next senior in continuous service. 
§ 3: Jurisdiction and terms. The supreme court shall have original jurisdiction in proceedings in 
quo warranto, mandamus, and habeas corpus; and such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by 
law. It shall hold one term each year at the seat of government and such other terms at such places as 
may be provided by law, and its jurisdiction shall be co-extensive with the state. 
§ 4: Reporter; clerk. There shall be appointed, by the justices of the supreme court, a reporter and 
clerk of said court, who shall hold their offices two years, and whose duties shall be prescribed by 
§ 5: Selection of justices of the supreme court. 
(a) Any vacancy occurring in the office of any justice of the supreme court and any position 
to be open thereon as a result of enlargement of the court, or the retirement or failure of an 
incumbent to file his declaration of candidacy to succeed himself as hereinafter required, or 
failure of a justice to be elected to succeed himself, shall be filled by appointment by the 
governor of one of three persons possessing the qualifications of office who shall be 
nominated and whose names shall be submitted to the governor by the supreme court 
nominating commission established as hereinafter provided. 
(b) In event of the failure of the governor to make the appointment within sixty days from the 
time the names of the nominees are submitted to him, the chief justice of the supreme court 
shall make the appointment from such nominees. 
© Each justice of the supreme court appointed pursuant to provisions of subsection (a) of this 
section shall hold office for an initial term ending on the second Monday in January following 
the first general election that occurs after the expiration of twelve months in office. Not less than sixty days prior to the holding of the general election next preceding the expiration of his 
term of office, any justice of the supreme court may file in the office of the secretary of state a 
declaration of candidacy for election to succeed himself. If a declaration is not so filed, the 
position held by such justice shall be open from the expiration of his term of office. If such 
declaration is filed, his name shall be submitted at the next general election to the electors of 
the state on a separate judicial ballot, without party designation, reading substantially as 
"Shall ________________________________________________ 
(Here insert name of justice.) 
(Here insert the title of the court.) 
be retained in office?" 
If a majority of those voting on the question vote against retaining him in office, the position 
or office which he holds shall be open upon the expiration of his term of office; otherwise he 
shall, unless removed for cause, remain in office for the regular term of six years from the 
second Monday in January following such election. At the expiration of each term he shall, 
unless by law he is compelled to retire, be eligible for retention in office by election in the 
manner prescribed in this section. 
(d) A nonpartisan nominating commission whose duty it shall be to nominate and submit to 
the governor the names of persons for appointment to fill vacancies in the office of any justice 
of the supreme court is hereby established, and shall be known as the "supreme court 
nominating commission." Said commission shall be organized as hereinafter provided. 
(e) The supreme court nominating commission shall be composed as follows: One member, 
who shall be chairman, chosen from among their number by the members of the bar who are 
residents of and licensed in Kansas; one member from each congressional district chosen 
from among their number by the resident members of the bar in each such district; and one 
member, who is not a lawyer, from each congressional district, appointed by the governor 
from among the residents of each such district. 
(f) The terms of office, the procedure for selection and certification of the members of the 
commission and provision for their compensation or expenses shall be as provided by the 
(g) No member of the supreme court nominating commission shall, while he is a member, 
hold any other public office by appointment or any official position in a political party or for 
six months thereafter be eligible for nomination for the office of justice of the supreme court. 
The commission may act only by the concurrence of a majority of its members. 
§ 6: District courts. 
(a) The state shall be divided into judicial districts as provided by law. Each judicial district 
shall have at least one district judge. The term of office of each judge of the district court shall 
be four years. District court shall be held at such times and places as may be provided by law. 
The district judges shall be elected by the electors of the respective judicial districts unless the 
electors of a judicial district have adopted and not subsequently rejected a method of 
nonpartisan selection. The legislature shall provide a method of nonpartisan selection of 
district judges and for the manner of submission and resubmission thereof to the electors of a judicial district. A nonpartisan method of selection of district judges may be adopted, and 
once adopted may be rejected, only by a majority of electors of a judicial district voting on the 
question at an election in which the proposition is submitted. Whenever a vacancy occurs in 
the office of district judge, it shall be filled by appointment by the governor until the next 
general election that occurs more than thirty days after such vacancy, or as may be provided 
by such nonpartisan method of selection. 
(b) The district courts shall have such jurisdiction in their respective districts as may be 
provided by law. 
© The legislature shall provide for clerks of the district courts. 
(d) Provision may be made by law for judges pro tem of the district court. 
(e) The supreme court or any justice thereof shall have the power to assign judges of district 
courts temporarily to other districts. 
(f) The supreme court may assign a district judge to serve temporarily on the supreme court. 
§ 7: Qualifications of justices and judges. Justices of the supreme court and judges of the district 
courts shall be at least thirty years of age and shall be duly authorized by the supreme court of 
Kansas to practice law in the courts of this state and shall possess such other qualifications as may 
be prescribed by law. 
§ 8: Prohibition of political activity by justices and certain judges. No justice of the supreme 
court who is appointed or retained under the procedure of section 5 of this article, nor any judge of 
the district court holding office under a nonpartisan method authorized in subsection (a) of section 6 
of this article, shall directly or indirectly make any contribution to or hold any office in a political 
party or organization or take part in any political campaign. 
§ 12: Extension of terms until successor qualified. All judicial officers shall hold their offices 
until their successors shall have qualified. 
§ 13: Compensation of justices and judges; certain limitation. The justices of the supreme court 
and judges of the district courts shall receive for their services such compensation as may be 
provided by law, which shall not be diminished during their terms of office, unless by general law 
applicable to all salaried officers of the state. Such justices or judges shall receive no fees or 
perquisites nor hold any other office of profit or trust under the authority of the state, or the United 
States except as may be provided by law, or practice law during their continuance in office. 
§ 15: Removal of justices and judges. Justices of the supreme court may be removed from office 
by impeachment and conviction as prescribed in article 2 of this constitution. In addition to removal 
by impeachment and conviction, justices may be retired after appropriate hearing, upon certification 
to the governor, by the supreme court nominating commission that such justice is so incapacitated as 
to be unable to perform adequately his duties. Other judges shall be subject to retirement for 
incapacity, and to discipline, suspension and removal for cause by the supreme court after 
appropriate hearing. 
§ 16: Savings clause. Nothing contained in this amendment to the constitution shall: (a) Shorten the 
term of office or abolish the office of any justice of the supreme court, any judge of the district 
court, or any other judge of any other court who is holding office at the time this amendment 
becomes effective, or who is holding office at the time of adoption, rejection, or resubmission of a 
nonpartisan method of selection of district judges as provided in subsection (a) of section 6 hereof, and all such justices and judges shall hold their respective offices for the terms for which elected or 
appointed unless sooner removed in the manner provided by law; (b) repeal any statute of this state 
relating to the supreme court, the supreme court nominating commission, district courts, or any other 
court, or relating to the justices or judges of such courts, and such statutes shall remain in force and 
effect until amended or repealed by the legislature. 
Article 4.-- ELECTIONS 
§ 1: Mode of voting. All elections by the people shall be by ballot or voting device, or both, as the 
legislature shall by law provide. 
§ 2: General elections. General elections shall be held biennially on the Tuesday succeeding the 
first Monday in November in even-numbered years. Not less than three county commissioners shall 
be elected in each organized county in the state, as provided by law. 
§ 3: Recall of elected officials. All elected public officials in the state, except judicial officers, shall 
be subject to recall by voters of the state or political subdivision from which elected. Procedures and 
grounds for recall shall be prescribed by law. 
Article 5.--SUFFRAGE 
§ 1: Qualifications of electors. Every citizen of the United States who has attained the age of 
eighteen years and who resides in the voting area in which he or she seeks to vote shall be deemed a 
qualified elector. Laws of this state relating to voting for presidential electors and candidates for the 
office of president and vice-president of the United States shall comply with the laws of the United 
States relating thereto. A citizen of the United States, who is otherwise qualified to vote in Kansas 
for presidential electors and candidates for the offices of president and vice-president of the United 
States may vote for such officers either in person or by absentee ballot notwithstanding the fact that 
such person may have become a nonresident of this state if his or her removal from this state occurs 
during a period in accordance with federal law next preceding such election. A person who is 
otherwise a qualified elector may vote in the voting area of his or her former residence either in 
person or by absentee ballot notwithstanding the fact that such person may have become a 
nonresident of such voting area during a period prescribed by law next preceding the election at 
which he or she seeks to vote, if his new residence is in another voting area in the state of Kansas. 
§ 2: Disqualification to vote. The legislature may, by law, exclude persons from voting because of 
commitment to a jail or penal institution. No person convicted of a felony under the laws of any state 
or of the United States, unless pardoned or restored to his civil rights, shall be qualified to vote. 
§ 4: Proof of right to vote. The legislature shall provide by law for proper proofs of the right of 
§ 7: Privileges of electors. Electors, during their attendance at elections, and in going to and 
returning therefrom, shall be privileged from arrest in all cases except felony or breach of the peace. 
Article 6.--EDUCATION § 1: Schools and related institutions and activities. The legislature shall provide for intellectual, 
educational, vocational and scientific improvement by establishing and maintaining public schools, 
educational institutions and related activities which may be organized and changed in such manner 
as may be provided by law. 
§ 2: State board of education and state board of regents. 
(a) The legislature shall provide for a state board of education which shall have general 
supervision of public schools, educational institutions and all the educational interests of the 
state, except educational functions delegated by law to the state board of regents. The state 
board of education shall perform such other duties as may be provided by law. 
(b) The legislature shall provide for a state board of regents and for its control and supervision 
of public institutions of higher education. Public institutions of higher education shall include 
universities and colleges granting baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degrees and such other 
institutions and educational interests as may be provided by law. The state board of regents 
shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law. 
© Any municipal university shall be operated, supervised and controlled as provided by law. 
§ 3: Members of state board of education and state board of regents. 
(a) There shall be ten members of the state board of education with overlapping terms as the 
legislature may prescribe. The legislature shall make provision for ten member districts, each 
comprised of four contiguous senatorial districts. The electors of each member district shall 
elect one person residing in the district as a member of the board. The legislature shall 
prescribe the manner in which vacancies occurring on the board shall be filled. 
(b) The state board of regents shall have nine members with overlapping terms as the 
legislature may prescribe. Members shall be appointed by the governor, subject to 
confirmation by the senate. One member shall be appointed from each congressional district 
with the remaining members appointed at large, however, no two members shall reside in the 
same county at the time of their appointment. Vacancies occurring on the board shall be filled 
by appointment by the governor as provided by law. 
© Subsequent redistricting shall not disqualify any member of either board from service for 
the remainder of his term. Any member of either board may be removed from office for cause 
as may be provided by law. 
§ 4: Commissioner of education. The state board of education shall appoint a commissioner of 
education who shall serve at the pleasure of the board as its executive officer. 
§ 5: Local public schools. Local public schools under the general supervision of the state board of 
education shall be maintained, developed and operated by locally elected boards. When authorized 
by law, such boards may make and carry out agreements for cooperative operation and 
administration of educational programs under the general supervision of the state board of education, 
but such agreements shall be subject to limitation, change or termination by the legislature. 
§ 6: Finance. 
(a) The legislature may levy a permanent tax for the use and benefit of state institutions of 
higher education and apportion among and appropriate the same to the several institutions, 
which levy, apportionment and appropriation shall continue until changed by statute. Further 
appropriation and other provision for finance of institutions of higher education may be made 
by the legislature. (b) The legislature shall make suitable provision for finance of the educational interests of the 
state. No tuition shall be charged for attendance at any public school to pupils required by law 
to attend such school, except such fees or supplemental charges as may be authorized by law. 
The legislature may authorize the state board of regents to establish tuition, fees and charges 
at institutions under its supervision. 
© No religious sect or sects shall control any part of the public educational funds. 
§ 7: Savings clause. 
(a) All laws in force at the time of the adoption of this amendment and consistent therewith 
shall remain in full force and effect until amended or repealed by the legislature. All laws 
inconsistent with this amendment, unless sooner repealed or amended to conform with this 
amendment, shall remain in full force and effect until July 1, 1969. 
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of the constitution to the contrary, no state 
superintendent of public instruction or county superintendent of public instruction shall be 
elected after January 1, 1967. 
© The state perpetual school fund or any part thereof may be managed and invested as 
provided by law or all or any part thereof may be appropriated, both as to principal and 
income, to the support of the public schools supervised by the state board of education. 
§ 1: Benevolent institutions. Institutions for the benefit of mentally or physically 
incapacitated or handicapped persons, and such other benevolent institutions as the public 
good may require, shall be fostered and supported by the state, subject to such regulations as 
may be prescribed by law. 
§ 4: Aged and infirm persons; financial aid; state participation. The respective counties of 
the state shall provide, as may be prescribed by law, for those inhabitants who, by reason of 
age, infirmity or other misfortune, may have claims upon the aid of society. The state may 
participate financially in such aid and supervise and control the administration thereof. 
§ 5: Unemployment compensation; old-age benefits; taxation. The state may provide by 
law for unemployment compensation and contributory old-age benefits and may tax 
employers and employees therefor; and the restrictions and limitations of section 24 of article 
2, and section 1 of article 11 of the constitution shall not be construed to limit the authority 
conferred by this amendment. No direct ad valorem tax shall be laid on real or personal 
property for such purposes. 
§ 6: Tax levy for certain institutions. The legislature may levy a permanent tax for the 
creation of a building fund for institutions caring for those who are mentally ill, retarded, 
visually handicapped, with a handicapping hearing loss, tubercular or for children who are 
dependent, neglected or delinquent and in need of residential institutional care or treatment 
and for institutions primarily designed to provide vocational rehabilitation for handicapped 
persons, and the legislature shall apportion among and appropriate the same to the several 
institutions, which levy, apportionment and appropriation shall continue until changed by 
statute. Nothing herein contained shall prevent such further appropriation by the legislature as 
may be deemed necessary from time to time for the needs of said charitable and benevolent 
institutions. Nothing in this amendment shall repeal any statute of this state enacted prior to this amendment, and any levy, apportionment or appropriation made under authority of this 
section before its amendment, and any statute making the same, shall remain in full force and 
effect until amended or repealed by the legislature. 
Article 8.--MILITIA 
§ 1: Composition; exemption. The militia shall be composed of all able-bodied male citizens 
between the ages of twenty-one and forty-five years, except such as are exempted by the laws 
of the United States or of this state; but all citizens of any religious denomination whatever 
who from scruples of conscience may be adverse to bearing arms shall be exempted 
therefrom, upon such conditions as may be prescribed by law. 
§ 2: Organization. The legislature shall provide for organizing, equipping and disciplining 
the militia in such manner as it shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the laws of the 
United States. 
§ 3: Officers. Officers of the militia shall be elected or appointed, and commissioned in such 
manner as may be provided by law. 
§ 4: Commander in chief. The governor shall be commander in chief, and shall have power 
to call out the militia to execute the laws, to suppress insurrection, and to repel invasion. 
[color=#333333]§ 1: Counties. The legislature shall provide for organizing new co

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